The results were highly conclusive. According to the Bible, the ancient Canaanites, were idol worshipers who practiced human sacrifice and engaged in deviant sexual activity. Nebuchadnezzar is said to have destroyed Ashkelon to send a warning to cities in the region of what would await them if they sided with the Egyptians. [xxxviii] Van Soldt, W.H. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. A few historians, however, think the Phoenicians navigated the entire Atlantic Ocean . The chief cities of Phoenicia … The conquest of canaan according to the bible and the t.e.a.t. This city was in fact destroyed by the Sea Peoples[xi]—and after their incursion it was returned to the Phoenicians. [Source: Mark Millmore, discoveringegypt.com ^^^], “The clash, when it came was a complete success for the Egyptians. The people known to history as the Phoenicians occupied a narrow tract of land along the coast of modern Syria, Lebanon and northern Israel. This view was championed by R. D. Barnett[v] and by others such as Eberhard Zangger[vi]. With plentiful supplies of fresh water, it was a major exporters of wine, olive oil, wheat and livestock. Where did the Phoenicians come from? |*|, “The coastal region north of Carmel had been known since the time of Thothmosis IV as the land of the Fenkeu, or Phoenicians. As for those who had assembled before them on the sea, the full flame was in their front, before the harbor-mouths, and a wall of metal upon the shore surrounded them. Following the creation of the concept in the nineteenth century, it became one of the most famous chapters of Egyptian history, given its connection with, in the words of Wilhelm Max Müller: "the most important questions of ethnographyand the primitive history of classic nations". Also, Plato identified Atlantis as having perished long before the Sea Peoples. This may have been a major factor in the events of this time. Price New from Used from Library Binding "Please retry" $9.70 . The word Philistine has come to mean a hedonistic, uneducated person. Food shortages definitely existed in Anatolia, which the Hittites were able to relieve by importing wheat and other goods from Egypt and Canaan. |Recent excavations at Ashdod, Ashkelon, Tell Miqne (Ekron), Tell esh- Sharia (Ziklag) and Tell Qasile are amplifying our understanding of this intrusive Aegean culture. For reasons not yet fully understood, the massive disruptions caused elsewhere in the Levant appear to have had a minimal effect upon the Phoenician coastal centers. An Egyptian wall painting from 1900 B.C. The Ugarites reduced all symbols with multiple consonant sounds to signs with a single consent sound. During this time the Hittites continued to press southward. The Phoenician people had been dominant sea traders in the Mediterranean prior to 1500 BC[xvii],[xviii] and in some cases had partnered with others to maintain that position. Based upon the sum of this evidence, we can only conclude that observations of the Phoenician cites being undamaged during this time, and having been accorded a special status by the invaders, have been verified. [xxx] Grant,  The Ancient Mediterranean, pp. 1176 BC —  King Ramses III of Egypt stopped the Sea Peoples attacks by land and by sea, allowing them to keep the land they had taken. Their Phonetic language and alphabet was the result of a need to amalgamate the various languages of the Mediterranean of the various peoples that constituted their sea-fairing nation; North Africans, siardinians, Sicilians, Porto Etruscans, Iberians, etc. Cremation burial, which can be cited from Anatolia and the Aegean, occurred in the coastal region beginning in the twelfth century and continued well into the seventh century. The primary importance of Justin's state ment thus lies in the fact that for a number of schol ars it provided evidence of aggressive activity by "Sea People" along the Phoenician coast. I guess that only adds to their mystery.”, Phoenicians inhabited the coastal cities, Tyre, Sidon, Byblos and Arwad, in what is now Lebanon and southern Syria. We are better able to see who the Sea Peoples were, what drove them, the actions they took, and where they settled. How "People of the Sea" Came to Be The Egyptians originally coined the name "Peoples of the Sea" for the foreign contingents that the Libyans brought in to support their attack on Egypt in c. 1220 BC during the reign of Pharaoh Merneptah. | Teacher: Mauricio TorresChapter 3, Section 1 (page 72 in your books) 2. Yet the actual Sea Peoples did all these things. The Phoenicians, who spread not only their goods and religion across the Mediterranean Sea but also their alphabet across the world, were famous for their ships and purple die. See the first pages here. Dispatches were sent to frontier posts with orders to stand firm until the main army could be brought into action. Later Peoples of the FertileCrescent: Sea PeoplesSocial Studies for 8th E.G.B. To counter this threat Ramses acted quickly. Similarly there was no evidence of the Mycenaeans destroying the Hittite empire, nor of their forming vast caravans of people moving by land down the Levantine coast. As a result of assembling and examining these many scattered facts about the Sea Peoples, which had been documented in separate studies by noted scholars, a larger picture has emerged. This constitutes 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. However the peoples of western and northern Anatolia were not members of the Hittite world, and in fact were frequently at war with that empire and with the Mycenaeans. Ancient Phoenicia more or less corresponded with ancient Lebanon with extensions north into present-day Syria and south into present-day Israel and was best viewed as a group ports with their surrounding hinterlands and mountains in their backyard and the sea at their door step. The Origin of the Sea Peoples is founded on my publication 'The Early Minoan Colonization of Spain'. According to the Guinness Book of Records, the earliest example of alphabetic writing was a clay tablet with 32 cuneiform letters found in Ugarit, Syria and dated to 1450 B.C. [xxxii] In addition, by going through the Hittite land and Canaan, the Sea Peoples would bring a force numbering hundreds of thousands to confront the wheat-rich Egyptians—rather than the handful of warriors who had failed on the first attempt. [xxxviii] Approximately two years later the Kaska captured Hattusas, the capital of the Hittites, and that empire died.[xxxix]. Around 1550 B.C. The Bible is the only lengthy written source on the Philistines. the calf was found within its own shrine, a beehive-shaped pottery vessel. Then the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. they, like the Hebrews, were conquered by the Assyrians. This issue has been touched upon briefly several times during this analysis, and it deserves to be addressed directly. The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of naval raiders who harried the coastal towns and cities of the Mediterranean region between c. 1276-1178 BCE, concentrating their efforts especially on Egypt.They are considered one of the major contributing causes to the Bronze Age Collapse (c. 1250-c.1150 BCE) and were once regarded as the primary cause. ISBN 10: 1595152369. [Source: Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art. Canaanite Ashkelon covered 60 hectares. At its height Canaanite Ashkelon was probably home to 15,000 people , quite a large number in ancient times. Questions or comments, e-mail ajhays98@yahoo.com, Early Man and Ancient History - Ancient Persian, Arabian, Phoenician and Near East Cultures. However, since their writings were made on papyrus, little remains except what has been written about them by Greek and Egyptian scholars. Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. These Cabiri, great Gods, and high priests were the Progenitors of the Cretans who called themselves the Sidonians, and the Greeks called them the Phoenicians, while the Egyptians called them the Sea Peoples because they rule the seas and passed from one country into another. Stager has suggested that the Canaanites perhaps were the Hyksos, mysterious people from the north that conquered the ancient Egyptians, based in the discovery of artifacts in Egypt from the Hyskso period that are identical with those found in Canaanite Ashkelon. and mixed with local Canaanites to create the Phoenicians. ", John R. Abercrombie of the University of Pennsylvania wrote: “Although the earliest depictions of Sea People occur in the reign of Seti I, the major incursion of these Aegean people happened about a century later during the reign of Ramesis III of the Twentieth Dynasty. But why was this particular moment chosen for exploding into action? No one knows who the Sea Peoples were. [xxxi] Bryce,  The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 356. Artifacts unearthed at Byblos have been dated to 5000 B.C. The sea trade of the Phoenicians was still more extensive than their land traffic. [xviii] Bentley, Jerry and Herbert Ziegler  Traditions & Encounters  (New York: McGraw Hill, 2000), p.51. What services could the Sea Peoples possibly have received from these maritime traders? The Egyptians considered the Canaanites to be rivals and cursed the Ashkelon kings by writing their names on figurines and smashing them to magically destroy their power. An essential link in their food system was the extensive trade in the Aegean which allowed shortages in any locality to be made up by shipments from other areas. [xxxii] Bryce,  The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 357. Stager believes the Philistines were Greeks. Around 1180 B.C., Ramesis III defeated the Sea People in a land and sea battle at the borders of Egypt (ANEP., 341, 813). They were repelled by Semitic tribes people who arrived as early as 3200 B.C. No one knows who the Sea Peoples were. The charioteers were warriors, and all good officers, ready of hand. In year eight of Ramesses III, they invaded Amurru, whose territory adjoined Egypt’s, where they took the time to regroup their forces before moving south, allowing the pharaoh to mobilize his forces. See the first pages here. Shelley Wachsmann[iv] added a significant point which was missing from the above explanation, and that was the participation of people from Central Europe and the Black Sea region. It was also the central storage place for grain supplies moving from the wheat plains of northern Syria to the Hittite court.” \^/. It looks at the evidence that points to a series of catastrophic events in the western Mediterranean during the Bronze Age which culminated in the final and utter collapse of the Myceneaen colonial power of the El Argar in Spain in about 1350 BC. (Compare, for example, the small shrine at Sarepta to the Bronze Age temples from Beth Shan.) |*|, “In many ways, one can summarize the material culture from Phoenicia and its colonies as reflecting developments on Canaanite culture from the Bronze Age. [xxii] Dunand, Maurice  Byblos  (French, translated into English by H. Tabet)  (Paris: Librairie Adrien-Maisonneuve, 1973), pp. This attack by the Sea Peoples on Egypt, the breadbasket which had been supplying the Hittites with wheat via Ugarit,[xxix] was consistent with the argument that these people were driven by food shortages in their lands. The Sea Peoples were the Proto-Phonecians. by Nissim R. Ganor Kotarim International Publishing Ltd., 2009 xviii + 302 pages, English Paper, 6 x 9 inches ISBN: 9789659141524 Pages: 48 / 47. The Phoenicians called it Yrnm, island of the ostriches; even though the island was inhabited by people of Ibero-Ligurian stock it is the Phoenicians who gave conformation to the urban center of the island. The Phoenicians managed to spread their influence because they ventured beyond their homeland both physically and intellectually to explore the world and the riches it had to offer. [xxix] Bryce,  The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 364. [xliii] Sandars,  The Sea Peoples, p. 183. [xiii] Betancourt, Philip P. “The Aegean and the Origin of the Sea Peoples”  The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment  (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum, 2000), pp. As a brief digression from the sea traders’ problems, we note that during the next forty-five years of Ramses’ long reign following this treaty, the Hittites were beset on all sides but held their own. Both sexes wore bright red and yellow clothes---long dresses for women and kilts by the men. When captured, they were often included in the Egyptian elite troops, as the Shardana of Ramesses II’s guard at the battle of Qadesh— a position that they still retained under Ramesses III.” <>, “Around 1200 BCE, these peoples began a large and destructive migration to the south and east of the Aegean. These were in addition to their home cities in Lebanon: Tyre (Sor), Sidon (Saida), Beirut (Beirut), Byblos (Jbail), Tripoli (Trablous), and many others. Sites, such as Ain Shems and even Sarepta, provide additional information on related cultures (e.g. The quick-strike raids in the Aegean and across the southern coast of Anatolia seem particularly of this nature, given that delivering settlers into those areas does not seem to have been the prime motivation. Any other similarities between the Sea Peoples and Phoenicians can also be used as an indicator of cultural mergence. Studies of their teeth indicate they ate a lot sand in their food and their teeth wore down quickly.”. We have some idea what the Canaanites looked like. It is deeply researched but also a highly readable exploration. Flowing down through Canaan they destroyed the cities they encountered. At Ashkelon babies were buried with Egyptians scarabs, magical charms, suggesting, archaeologists say, that they were accorded the status of full-fledged adults. The Canaanites are believed to have been the first people to possess an alphabet. DNA studies in Lebanon also reveal that both modern Muslims and Christians there share common Phoenician ancestors going back more than 5,000 years. Until Joseph excavates his proposed site or someone else can show this legendary place still existed—and then perished—at the same time as the Sea Peoples (sending them out to conquer other lands), this possibility is not adequately supported. [ix] Markoe, Glenn  Peoples of the Past: Phoenicians  (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), p. 24. depicts Canaanite dignitaries visiting the pharaoh. The mitochondrial DNA -- or genetic information from his mother's side -- came from a man known as "Young Man of Byrsa" or "Ariche." During Iron Age I (1200–1000 B.C.E. They were a slippery people. To the west lay a good harbor (the bay of Minet el Beidha), while to the east a pass led to the heart of Syria and northern Mesopotamia through the mountain range that lies parallel with the coast. The starting point is the material culture of Dor, the SKL town according [xlii] Wachsmann, “To the Sea of the Philistines”,  p.122. Now nothing stood in the way of the Sea Peoples’ exodus. The Canaanites were the earliest inhabitants of Lebanon according to written historical records. Genetic studies indicate that many of the people in Lebanon are descendants of Phoenicians and Canaanites while their impact in North Africa was minimal. Categories: History. The Ugarits condensed the Eblaite writing, with its hundreds of symbols, into a concise 30-letter alphabet that was the precursor of the Phoenician alphabet. Sea Peoples destroyed Hattusa, Lydia arose in its place. The island city of Tyre and the city of Sidon were the most powerful states in Phoenicia with Gebal/ Byblos and Baalbek as the most important spiritual/religious centers. On this same subject, one might well ask what led to the special treatment the Phoenicians seem to have been given by the Sea People. [i] Surprisingly for such a pivotal moment in world history, the origin and identity of the Sea Peoples are still widely debated. is sketchy. They flourished from c1500 to c300 BC and were famed traders. 1208 BC  —  King Merneptah of Egypt turned back an incursion by the Sea Peoples and Libyans at the Nile Delta. This approach may allow greater conformance with the array of facts discovered about the Sea Peoples and the events of this time. [xxiii] To the Phoenicians it must have been evident the next push southward by the Hittites would breach the walls of their coastal cities, at which point the sea traders could again expect no support from Egypt, and Phoenicia would in all probability cease to exist. They had pastures, orchards and vineyards. The Phoenicians, who spread not only their goods and religion across the Mediterranean Sea but also their alphabet across the world, were famous for their ships and purple die. He bases his arguments on: 1) similarities between the Samson and Delilah story and the myths of Hercules and a Greek myth with a figure that loses it power when its hair is cut; 2) evidence that Goliath wore Mycenaean-style battle gear; and 3) animal bones remains that indicate the Philistines ate a lot pigs, a common practice among the Greeks but not among the Canaanites. The bad rap the Philistines get seems to be based on the fact hat they fought with the Israelites for the better part of two centuries. If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from factsanddetails.com, please contact me. The Sea Peoples, like the Phoenicians, were excellent navigators---and how they knew the routes west to the rich sources of metals.”, DNA evidence seems to indicate the impact of the Sea People, if they existed, were a cultural and technological group, not a blood group. This led to a search being made in Greece to find the cause of the Sea Peoples migration. [xxxv] To deal with this, warriors and ships in the Sea Peoples confederacy poured from Anatolia and the Black Sea into the Aegean, where they ravaged the Mycenaeans in their islands and on the Greek mainland. Language: english. Text Sources: Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Mesopotamia sourcebooks.fordham.edu , National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, especially Merle Severy, National Geographic, May 1991 and Marion Steinmann, Smithsonian, December 1988, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Discover magazine, Times of London, Natural History magazine, Archaeology magazine, The New Yorker, BBC, Encyclopædia Britannica, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Time, Newsweek, Wikipedia, Reuters, Associated Press, The Guardian, AFP, Lonely Planet Guides, World Religions edited by Geoffrey Parrinder (Facts on File Publications, New York); History of Warfare by John Keegan (Vintage Books); History of Art by H.W. Among the important finds made at Ashkelon were the oldest arched gateway ever found and a silver-plated bronze calf, a symbol of Baal, reminiscent of the huge golden calf mentioned in Exodus, found in 1990 by Harvard archaeologists. From what scholars have been able to ascertain, the Canaanites were a largely urban people that originated in eastern Syria, migrated southward along the Mediterranean lived mostly between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean in what is now Israel. [viii] They not only showed there was no widespread destruction at that time, there was also great continuity from layer to layer, indicating that the local society continued to live in the same way throughout this period. Some modern historians theorize that the Egyptians knew the origins of the Sea Peoples based on the way they wrote about them. The starting point is the material culture of Dor, the SKL town according [xliv] Others sailed west and settled upon islands which were likewise given the name of the tribe which settled there: the Shekelesh who settled on Sicily,[xlv] the Sherden who settled on Sardinia,[xlvi] and several settlements in other lands. 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